1. Aradas, N., I. Naas, and D. Salgado. 2005. Comparing the Thermal Environment in Broiler Houses Using Two Bird Densities Under Tropical Conditions. Agricultural Engineering International: the CIGR Ejournal. Vol. VII. Manuscript BC 03 017. Accessed 11 April 2015
  2. Bedanova, I., Voslarova, E., Chloupek, P., Pistekova, V., Suchy, P., Blahova, J., Dobsikova, R., and Vecerek V., 2007 Stress in Broilers Resulting from Shackling Poultry Science 86:1065-1069
  3. Canadian Food Inspection Agency, No Objection Letter, 2013
  4. Coenen, A. M. L., Lankhaar, J Lowe, J. C.: and McKeegan D. E. F., 2009 Remote monitoring of electroencephalogram,, electrocardiogram, and behavior during controlled atmosphere stunning in broilers: Implications for welfare Poultry Science 88:10- 19 doi: 10.3382/ps.2008-00120
  5. Debut, M. Berri, C., Arnould, C, Guemene, D., Sante-Lhoutellier, V., Sellier, N., Baeza, E., Jehl, N. J Eg0, Y. Beaumont, C. and Le Bihan-Duval, E, 2005, Behavioural and physiological responses of three chicken breeds to pre-slaughter shackling and acute heat stress British Poultry Science Volume 46, Number 5 (October 2005), pp. 527-535
  6. Duncan, I. J. H., Slee, G. S., Kettlewell, P., Berry, P., & Carlisle, A. J. (1986). Comparison of the stressfulness of harvesting broiler chickens by machine and by hand. British poultry science, 27(1), 109-114
  7. EFSA 2004 Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Animal Health and Welfare on a request from the Commission related to welfare aspects of the main systems of stunning and killing the main commercial species of animals, The EFSA Journal (2004), 45, 1-29
  8. EFSA, 2004 ibid
  9. EFSA, 2004 ibid
  10. EFSA, 2004 ibid
  11. EFSA, 2004 ibid
  12. EFSA 2012 Scientific Opinion on electrical requirements for waterbath equipment applicable for poultry. EFSA Journal 012; 10(6): 2757. 80 pp. doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2012.2757.
  13. EFSA 2013 AHAW Panel (EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare), 2013. Scientific Opinion on monitoring procedures at slaughterhouses for poultry. EFSA Journal 2013;11(12):3521. [65 pp.] doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2013.3521.
  14. EFSA 2014 AHAW Panel (EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare), 2014. Scientific Opinion on electrical requirements for poultry waterbath stunning equipment. EFSA Journal 2014;12(7):3745. 18pp doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2014.3745
  15. EFSA 2017 AHAW Panel (EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare), More S, Bicout D, Bøtner A, Butterworth A, Calistri P, Depner K, Edwards S, Garin-Bastuji B, Good M, Gortazar Schmidt C, Miranda MA, Nielsen SS, Sihvonen L, Spoolder H, Willeberg P, Raj M, Thulke H-H, Velarde A, Vyssotski A, Winckler C, Corti nas Abrahantes J, Garcia A, Munoz Guajardo I, Zancanaro G and Michel V, 2017. Scientific Opinion on the low atmospheric pressure system for stunning broiler chickens. EFSA Journal 2017;15(12):5056, 86 pp.
  16. EFSA, 2017 ibid
  17. EFSA, 2017 ibid
  18. EFSA, 2017 ibid
  19. EFSA 2017 Annex A – Welfare hazards associated with alternative stunning method in broiler chicken - expert judgment and statistical analysis (In ‘Supporting information ’ section ):
  20. FAO Stat 2016
  21. Gentle, M. J., and V. L. Tilston. 2000. Nociceptors in the legs of poultry: implications for potential pain in preslaughter shackling. Anim. Welf. 9:227–236
  22. Gerritzen M.A.,. Reimert, H. G. M ,. Hindle, V. A , Verhoeven, M. T. W. and VerKamp W. B. 2013 Multistage carbon dioxide gas stunning of broilers 2013 Poultry Science 92:41-50
  23. Holloway P H and Pritchard D G 2017 Effects of ambient temperature and water vapor on chamber pressure and oxygen level during low atmospheric pressure stunning of poultry Poultry Science 0:1–12
  24. Humane Slaughter Association – How can Slaughter be Humane?
  25. Kannan, G., & Mench, J. A. (1997). Prior handling does not significantly reduce the stress response to pre-slaughter handling in broiler chickens. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 51(1-2), 87-99.
  26. Kettlewell, P. J., & Mitchell, M. A. (1994). Catching, handling and loading of poultry for road transportation. World's Poultry Science Journal, 50(1), 54-56.
  27. Lambooij, E., Gerritzen M.A, Engel, B., Hillebrand S.J.W, Lankhaar J., Pieterse C. 1999 Behavioural responses during exposure of broiler chickens to different gas mixtures Applied Animal Behaviour Science 62 (1999) 255- 265
  28. Mackie, N., and D. E. F. McKeegan. 2016. Behavioural responses of broiler chickens during low atmospheric pressure stunning. Appl.Anim. Behav. Sci. 174:90–98.
  29. Martin, J. E., K. Christensen, Y. Vizzier –Thaxton, A. M. Mitchell, and D. E. F. McKeegan. 2016a. Behavioural, brain and cardiac responses to hypobaric hypoxia in chickens. Physiol Behav. 163:25–36.
  30. Martin, J. E., K. Christensen, Y. Vizzier-Thaxton, and. McKeegan. D. E. F 2016b. Effects of analgesic intervention on behavioural responses to low atmospheric pressure stunning. Appl.Anim Behav. Sci, 180:157–165.
  31. Martin, J. E., K. Christensen, Y. Vizzier-Thaxton, and McKeegan. D. E. F Effects of light on responses to Low Atmospheric Pressure Stunning. Brit. Poult. Sci. 57:585–600.
  32. McKeegan, D.E.F., S.M. Abeyesinghe, M.A. McLeman, J.C. Lowe, T.G.M. Demmers, R.P. White, R.W. Kranen, H. van Bemmel, J.A.C. Lankhaar & C.M. Wathes (2007) Controlled atmosphere stunning of broiler chickens. II. Effects on behaviour, physiology and meat quality in a commercial processing plant, British Poultry Science, 48:4, 430-442
  33. McKeegan, D.E.F., H.G. Reimert, V. A. Hindle, P. Boulcott, J. M. Sparrey, C. M. Wathes, T. G. Demmers, and M. A. Gerritzen. 2013a. Physiological and behavioral responses of poultry exposed to gas-filled high expansion foam. Poult. Sci. 92:1145–1154
  34. Mitchel M.A. and Kettlewell P.J. 1998 Physiological Stress and Welfare of Broiler Chickens in Transit: Solutions Not Problems! Poultry Science 77:1803–1814
  35. The Poultry Site – Is gas stunning as humane as we think?
  36. Raj, A. B. M., N. G. Gregory, and S. Wotton. 1991. Changes in the somatosensory evoked potentials and spontaneous electroencephalogram of hens during stunning in argon-induced anoxia. Br. Vet. J. 147:322–330
  37. Sandilands, V., Raj, A. B. M., Baker, L., & Sparks, N. H. C. (2011). Aversion of chickens to various lethal gas mixtures. Animal Welfare, 20(2), 253-262.
  38. Tinker, D., Berry, P., White, R., Prescott, N., Welch, S., & Lankhaar, J. (2005). Improvement of the welfare of broilers by changes to a mechanical unloading system. Journal of applied poultry research, 14(2), 330-337.
  39. UK Treasury – Stearn’s Report – The Science of Climate Change
  40. USDA, No Objection Letter, 2010
  41. US Poultry & Egg – Economic Data – 2016
  42. Vizzier-Thaxton , Y. Christensen , K. D. , Schilling, M. W, Buhr , R. J and Thaxton J. P. 2010 A new humane method of stunning broilers using low atmospheric pressure J. Appl. Poult. Res. 19: 341–348 doi: 10.3382/japr.2010-00184
  43. von Holleben, K; von Wenzlawowicz, M; Eser, E 2012 Licensing poultry CO2 gas-stunning systems with regard to animal welfare: investigations under practical conditions Animal Welfare, Volume 21, Supplement 2, June 2012, pp. 103-111(9) I doi: I0.7 I20/0962728 I2X /3353700593842
  44. Webster, A. B., & Fletcher, D. L. (2004). Assessment of the aversion of hens to different gas atmospheres using an approach-avoidance test. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 88(3), 275-287
  45. Weeks, C. A. (2014). 20 Poultry Handling and Transport. Livestock Handling and Transport: Theories and Applications, 378